Figs, the Ficus trees, are an understudied genus in modern pharmacognosy. This book presents a multidisciplinary approach to the botany, chemistry, and pharmacology of fig trees and figs of the Ficus species, including the fig of commerce, Ficus carica, the rubber tree, Ficus elastic, and the Bo tree, Ficus religiosa. Traditional and current uses of figs in medicine are discussed in detail. The book also explores how figs and fig tree parts are processed, and the pharmacological basis underlying the potential efficacy of preparations is investigated in relation to their chemical composition. The book moves seamlessly from mythology to botany to ethnomedicine to pharmacology to phytochemistry.