This invaluable book provides an empirical research on the governance and reform of the contemporary township system in China. It provides an insightful and innovative understanding of China’s township system. The book consists of four parts. The first part discusses the historical changes, present situation and practical operation of China’s township system. The second part compares several practice models of the reform, and analyzes the motive force, path and trend of development of the reform. The third part studies the reconstruction of modern township governance system and other relevant institutional innovation. The fourth part focuses on the investigation report and the case analysis report of the actual operation of the township system at multi-dimensional levels.