The first part of the book is a review of some of the major operational risk incidents that have taken place in the last few years – some of the underlying causes and how they can be prevented or mitigated. Different incidents will be discussed in each chapter, for example, Rogue Trading, the London Whale, and the Mortgage Crisis. The causes will be reviewed and analysis of the underlying causes will be provided. The second part of the book looks at the tools that financial institutions have to work with to create an environment that can prevent and mitigate catastrophic events in the future. Cognitive technologies will be one part of this section, including, discussion of some of the tools developed by IBM in this space such as Insights for Financial Markets and Regulatory Compliance Assessment. In addition, cultural and governance factors will be discussed and how these can be optimized to support an effective risk governance framework.