|aFolk religion and ancestor worship conceptual metaphors in contemporary Taiwan /|cby Kai Svendsen-Boutilier.
|aTaichung, Taiwan :|bThe author,|c2017.
|aviii, 152 leaves :|bill. ;|c30 cm.
|aAdvisor: Yu-Da Stephen Lai, Ph. D.
|aThesis (M.A.)--Providence University, Graduate Program of the Department of English Language, Taichung, Taiwan, 2017.
|aIncludes bibliographical references.
|aThe aim of this thesis is to describe how Taiwanese folk religionists conceptualize death and ancestor worship through metaphor. This mixed methods research draws on Conceptual Metaphor (CM) Studies within Cognitive Linguistics, but also integrates an interdisciplinary approach by employing perspectives from Cultural Anthropology. The participants of this study are influenced by Taoism as an indigenous Chinese religion, and by Buddhism, an imported religion. These influences are recorded in the responses to questions that follow each of three contemporary news stories from Taiwan, thus also grounding the experiment in contemporary Taiwanese society. Accordingly, some Social Anthropology is also introduced. Cultural scripts are derived from the data, and the tentative beginnings of developing grounded Chinese cultural models for death and ancestor worship are discussed. The first news story concerns an unfortunate death and prompts for the verbal formula zhuā jiāotì (抓交替). Specifically, the apparent widespread comprehension of zhuā jiāotì (抓交替) among folk religionists in Taiwan is based on a cultural script that prohibits swimming in large bodies of water during Ghost Month in specific areas where there have been previous fatalities. The CM at work is DEATH IS A POROUS BORDER. In particular, spirits and humans can cross the border between the LIFE CONTAINER and the DEATH CONTAINER, but must maintain a one-to-one correspondence. This border becomes more porous during Ghost Month and especially in locations where a previous unfortunate death has occurred. To reincarnate, the spirit of the unfortunately deceased must grab another victim in order to maintain the one-to-one correspondence, thus reinforcing the experiential notion that fatal locations are likely to be dangerous on an ongoing basis. Also, the grabbing action that participants ascribe to the spirit is an example of embodiment, a well established basis for CM. The second news story concerns the culturally understood metaphors and social constraints that relate to Ghost Month (guǐyuè, 鬼月). The underlying cultural script that concerns marriage in this context is that Ghost Month is an inauspicious time to get married, although some families will opt to have a wedding banquet during that time for economic reasons. As it concerns the social institution of marriage, this cultural script is much more influenced by Taiwan’s pluralistic society. Each family has its own preferences, yet it seems feasible to confirm the broad social fact that a marriage that is registered during Ghost Month is plainly inauspicious. This cultural script combines THE NONPHYSICAL IS PHYSICAL as the universal metaphor for marriage with the culturally specific restriction of not getting married during Ghost Month, based on DEATH IS A POROUS BORDER. The third news story features metaphors about the meaning of burning joss paper. Ancestor worship is also based on THE NONPHYSICAL IS PHYSICAL, and is universally experienced among folk religionists in Taiwan through this metaphor across a spectrum of rituals that are selectively practiced according to gender and family upbringing. Specifically, sons are responsible for maintaining family altars and the corresponding respect for ancestors. Folk religionists in Taiwan interpret the burning of joss paper as a transfer of physical money to the nonphysical, immortal ancestors, which are UP. One of the main findings is that the type of offering to the ancestor may vary according to age, with older participants preferring to offer chicken and duck, whereas younger participants are more likely to report offering scooters and houses, thus in line with the unconfirmed observation that younger generations may be more materialistic. Nevertheless, this thesis is in line with previous CM studies and approaches that find most of human experience to be mediated through universally embodied or experiential metaphors..
|a本論文旨在探討台灣民間信仰者如何透過隱喻來概念化其對死亡與敬祖的看法。本研究採用訪談與問卷調查的混合研究法，其理論基礎建構於認知語言學中的概念隱喻（Conceptual Metaphor）研究與文化人類學的觀點之上，藉由記錄受訪者對三篇台灣新聞的反應與看法，來探討台灣當代民間信仰者其對死亡與敬祖的觀點如何受到道教(台灣當地的民間信仰)與佛教(外來宗教)的影響。 根據訪談資料，本研究所草擬的台灣當代民間信仰的文化腳本(cultural script)與死亡和祭拜祖先的文化模式(cultural model)分述如下：本研究所用的第一篇新聞主要是報導一則溺水死亡的意外事件，在聽完該則新聞後，部份受訪者被誘發說出「抓交替」這類的民間俗語，具體來說，台灣民間信仰者對「抓交替」的理解主要源自“禁止在鬼月期間游泳或玩水，特別是在曾經發生過死亡事件的特定水域”這樣的文化腳本，且該文化腳本背後運作的概念隱喻就是「死亡是一個多孔的邊界」(DEATH IS A POROUS BORDER)。在此概念隱喻下，靈魂和人類被理解為可以跨過LIFE CONTAINER和DEATH CONTAINER兩個概念領域之間的邊界，但必須保持一對一的對應。這個邊界的多孔性在鬼月期間與在之前有發生過意外的地方裡會特別明顯，為了投胎，不幸溺斃的鬼魂必須抓住另一個受害者以保持一對一的對應。此外，「抓交替」中的動詞「抓」，也是概念隱喻中其經驗基礎具體化的例子。 第二篇新聞則是關於鬼月時舉辦婚宴喜慶的報導。婚姻本身是一種社會制度，因此對婚姻的看法與理解不免受其台灣社會的多元背景所影響，然而根據訪談資料顯示，台灣當代民間信仰者對婚宴喜慶的理解有個共同的文化腳本，即“雖然有一些家庭會因為經濟考量而選擇在鬼月的時間舉辦婚禮宴會，但鬼月結婚是不吉利的”，此外，這個文化腳本同時涵蓋了兩種概念隱喻：即普遍性的「非實體為實體」(THE NONPHYSICAL IS PHYSICAL)的概念隱喻，與受到台灣本地文化限制的「死亡是一個多孔的邊界」(DEATH IS A POROUS BORDER)概念隱喻。 第三篇新聞是關於燒紙錢的報導，用以瞭解台灣當代民間信仰者如何概念化祭拜祖先。根據訪談資料顯示，雖然祭拜祖先的儀式與性別跟家庭的習慣有關(例如，家中的長子要負責恭奉祖先的牌位)，但不同受訪者所提到的儀式皆是建構在「非實體為實體」(THE NONPHYSICAL IS PHYSICAL)這個普遍性概念隱喻，例如，燒金紙就是被理解為把實體的紙轉換成無形的錢給在“上面”我們看不到的祖先。 本論文探討台灣民間信仰者如何透過隱喻來概念化其對死亡與敬祖的看法，其主要發現與前人的隱喻概念研究一致，即大多數的人類經驗皆會透過概念性隱喻來體現。.
|aLanguage, Rhetoric and Composition.
|aProvidence University.|bGraduate Program of Department of English Language, Literature and Linguistics.